Is political freedom essential for scientific advancement?

It would seem from the history of science that it is not terribly  essential.

Major advances were made in Europe during the 17th century when political freedom was not at its peak in England, France, Germany or Italy.

Significant advances were made in the USSR (Stalin dictatorship) and are being made in the People’s Republic of China (Communist).

Indian scientists (J. C. Bose, P. C. Ray, S. N. Bose, M. N. Saha, C. V. Raman, S. Chandrasekhar) made major contributions to science during the British occupation of India when there was no political freedom.

None of this should not be construed as an argument against political freedom.

Published by:

Varadaraja V. Raman

Physicist, philosopher, explorer of ideas, bridge-builder, devotee of Modern Science and Enlightenment, respecter of whatever is good and noble in religious traditions as well as in secular humanism,versifier and humorist, public speaker, dreamer of inter-cultural,international,inter-religious peace.

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